eastern europe cultures and needs as customers

Chinese cultural values are classified according to Kluckhohn and Strodbeck's taxonomy, and potential marketing implications for each cultural value dimension presented. from two large samples of Ukrainian establishments, we investigate, in two different time points, the relationship between non-wage benefits and firm performance during the period of transition to a market economy (1994–2004). Employing means-end theory, hypotheses are developed to predict how French versus American national culture influences Think seasonal and local when planning meals. Ethnic identity is an important component of the self-concept and, like other aspects of identity, can be particularly salient during adolescence. Germany, for its part, must urgently make the decision to stay inside NATO’s nuclear sharing program and assign the required budgetary and military assets quickly in order to remain a reliable nuclear partner. These organizational cultures differ from one company to the other within the same country. This article investigates the relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The countries included in this region cover the area from North to South: This approach has highlighted some differences – for example, a more friendly attitude to foreign nationals in Balkan countries can be observed. The resulting hypothesis that a hedonic item is relatively preferred over the same utilitarian item in forfeiture choices than in acquisition choices was supported in two choice experiments. It’s a taboo to shake hands at the doorway for a Pole but acceptable for other countries. Those are studied in the aspects of consumer behavior, product and brand development, distribution, marketing communications and their impact on doing business in Central and Eastern Europe. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries, Comparative Evaluation and the Relationship Between Quality, Satisfaction, and Repurchase Loyalty, Negotiating with Yourself and Losing: Making Decisions with Competing Internal Preferences, Structural Factors in the Economic Reforms of China, Eastern Europe, and the Former Soviet Union, Representing and Testing Organizational Theories: A Holistic Construal, The measurement of etic aspect of individualism and collectivism across cultures, The Institutional Effects on Strategic Alliance Partner Selection in Transition Economies: China vs. Russia, Consumer Choice Between Hedonic and Utilitarian Goods, Shopping Online for Freedom, Control, and Fun, Chinese Cultural Values: Their Dimensions and Marketing Implications, Modeling the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction and repurchase intentions in a business-business, services context: An empirical examination, A Structural Equation Test of the Value-Attitude-Behavior Hierarchy, A Comprehensive Framework for Service Quality: An Investigation of Critical Conceptual and Measurement Issues Through a Longitudinal Study, The Effects of Culture and Socioeconomics on the Performance of Global Brand Image Strategies, A Means-End Chain Model Based on Consumer Categorization Processes, Information Processing from Advertisements: Toward an Integrative Framework, Assessing construct validity in organizational research, The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China, On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models, Values and consumption patterns: A closed loop, China: Move over, Karl Marx - Here comes Confucius, The Value Orientations of Minority and Non-Minority Small Business Owners, Differences in "cultural values" and their effects on responses to marketing stimuli. which other cultures influenced the traditional cuisine or which historical events … This study assesses the impact of business ideology and national culture on work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. Whilst the country will indeed lose transit fees should the bulk of Russian gas exports to Western Europe no longer flow through the country, it stands to gain in terms of lower gas prices. These mechanisms, omitted from consideration in current models, include the roles of personal determinism (“fortitude”) and social bonding at the institutional and personal level. Values are viewed as partly based on needs, but little research has been devoted to testing this relationship. As of mid 1988 over 200.000 persons have clinically manifested AIDS, in addition, 150.000 more cases are expected to occur in the remainder of 1988 and this figure will grow to over a million cases by the early 1990ies. This article presents a questionnaire measure of ethnic identity based on the elements of ethnic identity that are common across groups, so that it can be used with all ethnic groups. Traditional Foods in Europe In chapter 4, an overview of traditional foods in selected European countries can be found. Bulgarians and Romanians are mainly Orthodox while others in the region are Catholics (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Lithuanians) or Lutherans (Estonians, Latvians) but in all of these countries you can find various types of Christians living together with Muslims, Jews and other religions. However, little research has been done (1) on linking the use of brand image strategies to product performance or (2) on managing brand images in global markets. Case 3.1 The Case Of Maize Meat In Africa. Uses a study of Toyota Corolla as an example. Psychology and Marketing 10, 399-412, A need basis for values: Associations between the need for cognitive closure and value priorities, An Alliance Of Women: Immigration And The Politics Of Race, Firearms and the Distribution of Income: A NeoClassical Model. Russian gas might end up competing with Russian gas but also with gas from other sources. Online Store Perceptions: How to Turn Browsers into Buyers? Implications for research and for the management of loyalty are derived. Social media usage is high amongst individuals across the region with many SMEs also trying to incorporate it into their marketing strategy, but the level of uptake is at a level that is not yet comparable to that of Western and Northern Europe. Building great customer relationships is a long-term game. It was hypothesized that cultural individualism-collectivism, self construals, and values would have separate effects on individuals’use of low- and high-context communication styles. Collectivism – individuals are part of a group and the needs of the group come before the individual. m. marginatum in B&H. This article investigates the influence of French and American national culture on consumer perceptions of productrelated The age of consumers was also found to be significant, although there is no linear trend. The measure can be used to examine similarities and differences in ethnlic identity and its correlates among youths from different ethnic groups. Implications for marketing professionals are discussed. The company’s strong, data-led focus on customers helps Verizon maintain an edge when it comes to innovation and delivering against market needs. What are the differences b… The role of values has received limited empirical attention relative to its potential significance, especially within a causal modeling approach. • Nord Stream 2 will enhance the liquidity of Central European gas hubs in EU gas trading and pricing, and strengthen their role as continental price markers. NEC aims to help solve a wide range of challenging issues and to create new social value for the changing world of tomorrow. This finding suggests that, at least where value appeals are used in fashion advertising, similar appeals stressing the excitement of new fashions may be suitable in both countries. Consumers shop online for both goal-oriented and experiential reasons. Rotating distributor optimizes air admission. Implications for brand image management for international markets were discussed. Such cultures include Northern Europe and North America. A brand’s knowledge and application of a consumer’s behaviors and preferences is critical in establishing and nurturing long-term relationships. By and large, cultures in the West tend to be more individualistic whereas people from the East are more collectivist. On average, the top 250 retailers operated in 6.8 countries in 2007 up from 6.2 countries in 2006 and 5.9 in 2005 (Deloitte, 2009). Better understanding of differences can help hotels integrate the different needs more effectively in their products and service offerings. Nord Stream 2 is part of Gazprom’s strategy to minimize transit risk to its prime export market, the EU, for which the company is ready to put down significant investment. Reliability, assessed by Cronbach 's alpha, was .81 for the high school sample and .9Ofor the college sample. usually occurring in relatively dry and warm regions of southern and eastern Europe, northern Africa, Middle East and Asia. • The Commission already experimented with using its regulatory tools in the foreign policy domain and vis-à-vis external actors, including Gazprom. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". However, goal-oriented motives are more common among online shoppers than are experiential motives. In Western Europe existing facilities are being modernized and in Eastern Europe new power plants are being built and equipped with the new flue gas desulfurization technology. This study focuses on a particularly important strategic decision firms face-alliance partner selection. MANOVA and ANOVA results show that in contrast to online buyers, online browsers are more concerned about the design and security of online stores, customer service, and product offerings (price, selection, and quality). Consistent with hypotheses, the results indicated that NFCC was positively associated with valuing security, conformity, and tradition and negatively associated with valuing stimulation and self-direction. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed. 1.3 Occupational level: This kind of culture comes between the national and organizational cultures; getting into an occupation such as teaching requires the social values acquired coupled with the practices of the organization. Latin America, Southern Europe and most Middle Eastern nations are examples. On a marginal costs basis, Nord Stream 2 might emerge an important hedging strategy against competitively priced US LNG imports. In other words, a moderator effect of the amount of elaboration upon the relationship between consumer satisfaction and true brand loyalty is expected and found. As international marketing activities grow in importance, researchers are paying increased attention to cultural differences in market segments. Individualism-collectivism has a direct effect on communication styles and an indirect effect that is mediated through self construals and values. The authors discuss theoretical implications of these reference-dependent preference asymmetries and explore consequences for marketing managers and other decision makers. This study examined the relationship of consumer values, needs and purchase behavior in two Asian consumer markets, China and South Korea. This paper presents a model linking perceived product attributes to values. ... Why is Eastern Europe called a cultural crossroads? To assess the relative advantage of the framework, the authors compare the model with previous integrative models and discuss its implications for related research streams. Attempts to disaggregate performance into its component multiple dimensions, and assess the individual impact of each on post-purchase evaluation processes. It is also concluded that Chinese cultural values could be an effective basis for market segmentation. 5. Furthermore, it was found that the strength of the relationship between different types of satisfaction and loyalty indicators differs markedly between various market segments (private/business use of car and new/used car buyers). Though the structure of business meetings is similar, negotiating styles vary even though the hierarchical system is strictly observed; Poles and Estonians are more formal and written-detail oriented while Slovaks and Czechs prefer a good presentation and a longer negotiation process. Customer loyalty is viewed as the strength of the relationship between an individual’s relative attitude and repeat patronage. Details a method for uncovering the direct and indirect influences of human values on consumer decisions. Treat your customers as assets that will grow in value. It is important to acknowledge this environment in order to appreciate the complex political dynamics possibly informing regulatory decisions as taken by EU authorities. Recognizing the deficiency of definition of culture in cross-cultural studies, this paper presents a conceptualization of culture. Other needs such as physiological and safety needs are basic needs that are present in any culture, although it may not be sought after in the sequence proposed by Maslow. Consistent with theories of epistemic closure, this research supports the idea that individual differences in NFCC give rise to values which match and satisfy individual needs to attain or avoid cognitive closure. Their divergent approaches have helped create distinct institutional environments. Research limitations/implications – The sample was limited in size (n=100 in each country). The implications include those relating to brand loyalty, gift-giving behaviour, consumer satisfaction, consumer complaint behaviour and promotion activities. retailers from Western Europe, and to a lesser extent, North America have led the way (Coe and Wrigley, 2007: 341). Eastern Europe is a region that encompasses many different cultures, ethnicities, languages, and histories. The customers were also asked why they would buy the same brand (again) or from the same dealer. satellite nation. Furthermore, a study of the literature revealed that dealer loyalty might also significantly affect brand loyalty.In the empirical part of the study, customers (n = 416) of different automobile‐dealers of the same brand were asked to fill in a mailed questionnaire. Assessing Nord Stream 2: regulation, geopolitics & energy security in the EU, Central Eastern Europe... Heritage and history: Germany’s industrial museums and the (re-) presentation of labour, After the Golden Age: The Future of the Welfare State in the New Global Order. For the U.S., this means that it needs to keep Europe under its nuclear umbrella for the foreseeable future. Non-wage benefits, corporate ownership and firm performance in post-communist economies: evidence fr... Understanding Failure in International Retailing: An Institutional Framework for Future Investigatio... Marketing Implications of Communist Ideological Legacy in Culture in the Context of Central and East... Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (Koch, 1844) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. m. marginatum can be transported over vast distances by their vertebrate hosts, on particular migratory birds and ungulates and can be the most important vector and reservoir of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, which can result in a severe and potentially fatal disease in humans. Taking advantage of the shared aspect of culture, a method is presented that extracts a shared element of subjective culture from cultural samples. All the countries also prefer face – to – face communication and address each other formally using their educational or office titles. Explore the following pages, which contain more information on each of these Eastern European countries: Share your European work/study experiences. Because of the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The author examines the brand image-performance linkage for consumer goods in two categories marketed internationally. with a matched sample of French and American consumers. balkanization. This includes a brief history of traditional foods in these countries, i.e. They also perceive themselves as less skilled at using the Web, more price-conscious and less time pressured than online buyers. Recognise and honour other cultures For example: Asian, Indian, Middle Eastern and South European. Its most important contribution to UK energy security might lie in keeping the continental North-Western markets liquid, so that the UK can continue sourcing from international LNG markets and continental Europe, which maintains gas-on-gas competition. Self-Esteem was examined through brand loyal behavior differed between the two consumer samples customers helps Verizon maintain an edge it!: international differences etiquette is also concluded that Chinese cultural values are viewed partly. From country to country move to the UK, Nord Stream 2 does not universally translate into loyalty Asian and! 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